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GUT-Brain Axis and Psychiatric Disorders

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Alper Evrensel*, Barış Önen Ünsalver and Mehmet Emin Ceylan   Pages 178 - 186 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: Studies on the effects of microorganisms living in the guts of human health and the etiopathogenesis of diseases, especially psychiatric disorders, have rapidly increased in recent years. According to the results of these studies, evidence has been found that there is direct and indirect (immune system) interaction between the microbiota bacteria and their metabolites and neurons.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss the current research findings focusing on the relationship between the gut microbiota and psychiatric disorders. In this context, the effectiveness of microbiota-based treatments (probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation) on the treatment of psychiatric disorders is also discussed.

Method: A review of the literature was conducted that includes the following words: gut-brain axis, microbiota, dysbiosis, psychiatry and mental disorders.

Results: There are few clinical studies examining the gut-brain relationship. In the light of the evidence from these clinical trials and animal experiments, it can be suggested that gut microbiota has a distinct and determinative role in brain function.

Conclusion: Gut microbiota creates a determining and life-long effect on the emergence of the immune system and the brain in the fetus starting with birth. Delivery mode, breastfeeding, diet, drugs (antibiotics, psychotropics) and aging may change the composition of gut microbiota. Disruption of microbiota composition (dysbiosis) may lead to the emergence of psychiatric disorders. Microbiotabased treatments have a therapeutic potential by repairing dysbiosis. There is a need for more randomized controlled studies in order for the effects of gut microbiota on psychiatric disorders to be completely understood.

Keywords:

Microrganisms, neurons, disorders, microbiota, dysbiosis, psychotropics.

Affiliation:

Uskudar University, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, Uskudar University, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, Uskudar University, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul

Graphical Abstract:



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